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Questions recently asked by sam18

What are kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes?5
1132 days ago, last commented by omarwa79
The World’s Most Amazing Views?√ answered5
1133 days ago, last commented by herkus
Who played Mystique in X-Men: Days of Future Past and also reprised her role as Katniss Everdeen in The Hunger Games?5
1147 days ago, last commented by ubernoober1
Which team moved into the light in 1997, following 99 years at Roker Park?√ answered5
1150 days ago, last commented by awais
Which is the world's smallest flightless bird?√ answered5
1151 days ago, last commented by Zaaib
Joseph Aspdin, a bricklayer's son, obtained the patent for what on 21st of October 1824?√ answered5
1152 days ago, last commented by Umar12
Where did John F. Kennedy, Lee Harvery Oswald and Jack Ruby all die? √ answeredREWARD $2
1156 days ago, last commented by malik11
What is the last book of the Bible?√ answered5
1156 days ago, last commented by SetupComputer
How to cure bone weakness?5
1161 days ago, last commented by igor
Body hanged up & feel pain frequently?√ answered5
1161 days ago, last commented by nino2018
What career did the Duke of Wellington pursue after the Battle of Waterloo? √ answered5
1173 days ago, last commented by qa99577
Who was Doctor Zhivago's great love? √ answered5
1173 days ago, last commented by andewande
Name the commoner who ruled England in 1658-59. 5
1173 days ago, last commented by azzromyo
Which ghost ship is the theme of an 1841 opera by Richard Wagner? 5
1173 days ago, last commented by azzromyo
Which popular hymn was composed by Sir Arthur Sullivan of Opera Fame? 5
1173 days ago, last commented by azzromyo
Do neutrinos have mass?5
1173 days ago, last commented by g1000A
Which drive is best sata or raid?√ answered5
1186 days ago, last commented by SetupComputer
planets are there in our solar system?√ answered80
1200 days ago, last commented by AmericanDawg
How to make male reproductive organ strong?√ answered15
1192 days ago, last commented by AmericanDawg
How to cure muscular weakness?√ answered5
1193 days ago, last commented by ZzMrXzZ
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Answers recently replied by sam18

replied the topic How to Make a Bootable USB Disk for Windows 10? created by Arain

You can choose to make a Windows 10 bootable USB disk or DVD, though the USB offers some advantages like faster read/ write speeds. You are also likely to have a USB drive lying around, or your computer may not have a DVD drive, in which case the decision is already made for you.

(Also see: How to Make a Bootable USB Disk for Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows XP)

1124 days ago
replied the topic Should I Disable the Page File if My Computer Has a Lot of RAM? created by Arain

1124 days ago
replied the topic tomato is fruit or vegetable? created by kimi

Did you know… A tomato is the official “vegetable” of New Jersey and the official fruit (and vegetable) of Arkansas.

1155 days ago
replied the topic Which Types of People You Should Keep Out of Your Life? created by wase60

1. Those who are judgmental

Judgmental people will find a way to criticize anything and everything they come in contact with. You could take the time to explain something to them in great detail but it goes in one ear and out the other. They come to their conclusions before they hear any facts -- they don’t listen well and are horrible at communicating. Asking for advice or feedback from a judgmental person is a complete waste of time.

Related: 12 Ways Successful People Handle Toxic People
2. Those who are envious

Being an entrepreneur can be a very bumpy journey filled with highs and lows -- while it’s important to have a strong group of supporters in your corner during the low times it’s also important to have supporters that are there to congratulate you when you hit the high points. Envious people will not be happy for you -- ever. They feel that it should happen to them and nobody else.
3. Those who are control freaks

Control freaks don’t ever want to listen -- they don’t have to, because according to them they know everything and they know the best way to do everything. While this type of person can be a nuisance in your personal life, they are a complete nightmare to deal with in a business environment. A successful business structure requires team members that will listen to and follow instructions. If you have control freaks on your team it can cause a “too many cooks in the kitchen” problem.
4. Those who are arrogant

Don’t confuse confidence with arrogance -- confident people inspire, while arrogant people intimidate and annoy. Someone with an arrogant attitude feels he or she is better than everyone around them. In a personal setting this can be annoying, while in a professional situation this can create an uncomfortable environment.
5. Those who are victims

The constant victim will always make excuses and blame others for their mistakes and wrongdoing. They are some of the most toxic people to be around -- they will never accept responsibility and always point the finger, which causes a domino affect of the blame game in a work setting. Flush them out of your business and eliminate that headache.

Related: 5 Ways to Tell If Your Workplace Is Really Toxic
6. Those who are Negative Nancies

Someone who is always negative will drain your positive energy immediately -- they thrive on bringing everyone down around them. You will never receive any words of encouragement from a Negative Nancy. They will discredit every idea you have and instead of being supportive they will go out of their way to point out every possible way you could fail, rather than focus on possibilities and potential. They are a major energy-suck.
7. Those who are liars

To be successful you have to surround yourself with other successful individuals that you can trust and count on to be there for you. You can’t trust liars and it's hard to count on them because you never know if they are lying or telling the truth. That type of uncertainty will wear you out quickly -- eliminate them from your life and you won’t have to wonder if you are being lied to.
8. Those who are gossipers

People gossip because they are insecure -- they don’t know how to separate fact from speculation and when truths get twisted, the wrong information is conveyed, feelings get hurt and enemies are born. Having a gossiper within your business can be very destructive -- they are cancers and can quickly create a negative environment.

If any of these ring a bell, then there is a good chance you are being exposed to toxic individuals. You should consider removing them from the equation, allowing you to remain 100 percent focused on reaching your goals without unnecessary distractions.

1161 days ago
replied the topic What is entropy? created by jonetar

There are two related definitions of entropy: the thermodynamic definition and the statistical mechanics definition. Historically, the classical thermodynamics definition developed first. In the classical thermodynamics viewpoint, the system is composed of very large numbers of constituents (atoms, molecules) and the state of the system is described by the average thermodynamic properties of those constituents; the details of the system's constituents are not directly considered, but their behavior is described by macroscopically averaged properties, e.g. temperature, pressure, entropy, heat capacity. The early classical definition of the properties of the system assumed equilibrium. The classical thermodynamic definition of entropy has more recently been extended into the area of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Later, the thermodynamic properties, including entropy, were given an alternative definition in terms of the statistics of the motions of the microscopic constituents of a system — modeled at first classically, e.g. Newtonian particles constituting a gas, and later quantum-mechanically (photons, phonons, spins, etc.). The statistical mechanics description of the behavior of a system is necessary as the definition of the properties of a system using classical thermodynamics become an increasingly unreliable method of predicting the final state of a system that is subject to some process.

1196 days ago
replied the topic vector? created by berge

Vector graphics is the creation of digital images through a sequence of commands or mathematical statements that place lines and shapes in a given two-dimensional or three-dimensional space. In physics, a vector is a representation of both a quantity and a direction at the same time. In vector graphics, the file that results from a graphic artist's work is created and saved as a sequence of vector statements. For example, instead of containing a bit in the file for each bit of a line drawing, a vector graphic file describes a series of points to be connected. One result is a much smaller file.

1196 days ago
replied the topic GTA? created by abidderl2

Awesome for play in free styLe...

1197 days ago
replied the topic planets are there in our solar system? created by sam18

The Solar System[a] comprises the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.[b] Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets[c] that form the planetary system around it, while the remainder are significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies such as comets and asteroids.[d] Of those that orbit the Sun indirectly, two are larger than the smallest planet.

The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed largely of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called ices, such as water, ammonia and methane. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.

The Solar System also contains smaller objects.[d] The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, and beyond them a newly discovered population of sednoids. Within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity.[10] Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris.[d] In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust, freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least three of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites,[e] usually termed "moons" after the Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.

The solar wind, plasma flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of interstellar wind; it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is believed to be the source for long-period comets, may also exist at a distance roughly a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way.
Planet need to meet the following criteria:
A) planet has to orbit the Sun.
B) planet needs enough gravity to pull itself into a sphere.
C) planet needs to have cleared out its orbit of other objects.
Before 4 year there was 9 planet but later on one planet is removed from this list because he gave birth to a new small planet. This 9th planet was ploto.
For more:

1198 days ago
replied the topic What is entropy? created by jonetar

In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder. According to the second law of thermodynamics the entropy of an isolated system never decreases; such a system will spontaneously proceed towards thermodynamic equilibrium, the configuration with maximum entropy. Systems that are not isolated may decrease in entropy, provided they increase the entropy of their environment by at least that same amount. Since entropy is a state function, the change in the entropy of a system is the same for any process that goes from a given initial state to a given final state, whether the process is reversible or irreversible. However, irreversible processes increase the combined entropy of the system and its environment.

The change in entropy (ΔS) of a system was originally defined for a thermodynamically reversible process as

\Delta S = \int \frac{dQ_\text{rev}}T,
where T is the absolute temperature of the system, dividing an incremental reversible transfer of heat into that system (dQ). (If heat is transferred out the sign would be reversed giving a decrease in entropy of the system.) The above definition is sometimes called the macroscopic definition of entropy because it can be used without regard to any microscopic description of the contents of a system. The concept of entropy has been found to be generally useful and has several other formulations. Entropy was discovered when it was noticed to be a quantity that behaves as a function of state, as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics.

Entropy is an extensive property. It has the dimension of energy divided by temperature, which has a unit of joules per kelvin (J K−1) in the International System of Units (or kg m2 s−2 K−1 in terms of base units). But the entropy of a pure substance is usually given as an intensive property — either entropy per unit mass (SI unit: J K−1 kg−1) or entropy per unit amount of substance (SI unit: J K−1 mol−1).

The absolute entropy (S rather than ΔS) was defined later, using either statistical mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics.

In the modern microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics, entropy is the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its thermodynamic specification. Understanding the role of thermodynamic entropy in various processes requires an understanding of how and why that information changes as the system evolves from its initial to its final condition. It is often said that entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, or of our lack of information about it. The second law is now often seen as an expression of the fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics through the modern definition of entropy.

1200 days ago
replied the topic Control of Metabolism? created by wase60

An inhibitor molecule competes with a substrates by binding to the enzyme's active site in competitive inhibition.
In noncompetitive inhibition, an inhibitor binds to an allosteric site; the substrate can still bind to the enzyme, but the enzyme is no longer in optimal position to catalyze the reaction.
Allosteric inhibitors induce a conformational change that changes the shape of the active site and reduces the affinity of the enzyme's active site for its substrate.
Allosteric activators induce a conformational change that changes the shape of the active site and increases the affinity of the enzyme's active site for its substrate.
Feedback inhibition involves the use of a reaction product to regulate its own further production.
Inorganic cofactors and organic coenzymes promote optimal enzyme orientation and function.
An organic molecule that is necessary for an enzyme to function.
allosteric site:
a site other than the active site on an enzyme
an inorganic molecule that is necessary for an enzyme to function

Control of Metabolism Through Enzyme Regulation:
Cellular needs and conditions vary from cell to cell and change within individual cells over time. For example, stomach cells require different amounts of energy than skin cells, fat storage cells, blood cells, and nerve cells. The same stomach cell may also need more energy immediately after a meal and less energy between meals.
Enzymes ultimately determine which chemical reactions a cell can carry out and the rate at which they can proceed. These chemical reactions determine a cell's function. A cell's functions are usually defined by its chemical reactions, so enzymes generally determine a cell's function as well. By lowering the activation energy of a chemical reaction, enzymes promote chemical reactions that are specific to the cell's function.
Competitive and Noncompetitive Inhibition:
The cell uses specific molecules to regulate enzymes to either promote or inhibit certain chemical reactions. In competitive inhibition, an inhibitor molecule is similar enough to a substrate that it can bind to the active site and simply block the substrate from binding . In noncompetitive inhibition, an inhibitor molecule binds to the enzyme at a location other than the active site (an allosteric site). The substrate can still bind to the enzyme, but the inhibitior changes the shape of the enzyme so it is no longer in optimal position to catalyze the reaction.

Enzyme Inhibition:
Competitive and noncompetitive inhibition affect the rate of reaction differently. Competitive inhibitors affect the initial rate, but do not affect the maximal rate, whereas noncompetitive inhibitors affect the maximal rate.
Allosteric Inhibition and Activation:
In allosteric inhibition, inhibitor molecules bind to an enzyme at the allosteric site where their binding induces a conformational change that reduces the affinity of the enzyme's active site for its substrate. The binding of this allosteric inhibitor changes the conformation of the enzyme as well as the enzyme's active site, so the substrate is not able to bind. There is allosteric activation as well as inhibition. Allosteric activators also bind to allosteric sites, inducing a conformational change that increases the affinity of the enzyme's active site for its substrate .
Allosteric Inhibitors and Activators:
Allosteric inhibitors modify the active site of the enzyme so that substrate binding is reduced or prevented. In contrast, allosteric activators modify the active site of the enzyme so that the affinity for the substrate increases.
Cofactors and Coenzymes:
Many enzymes only work if bound to non-protein helper molecules called cofactors and coenzymes. Binding to these molecules promotes optimal conformation and function for their respective enzymes.These molecules bind temporarily through ionic or hydrogen bonds or permanently through stronger covalent bonds. Cofactors are inorganic ions such as iron (Fe++) and magnesium (Mg++). For example, DNA polymerase requires a zinc ion (Zn++) to build DNA molecules.
Coenzymes are organic helper molecules with a basic atomic structure made up of carbon and hydrogen; the most common coenzymes are dietary vitamins . Vitamin C is a coenzyme for multiple enzymes that take part in building collagen, an important component of connective tissue. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a complex of several enzymes that requires one cofactor and five different organic coenzymes to catalyze its chemical reaction. The availability of various cofactors and coenzymes regulates enzyme function.
Vitamins are important coenzymes or precursors of coenzymes and are required for enzymes to function properly. Multivitamin capsules usually contain mixtures of all the vitamins at different percentages.
Enzyme Compartmentalization

In eukaryotic cells, molecules such as enzymes are usually compartmentalized into different organelles. This organization contributes to enzyme regulation because certain cellular processes can be contained in separate organelles. For example, the enzymes involved in the later stages of cellular respiration carry out reactions exclusively in the mitochondria. The enzymes involved in the digestion of cellular debris and foreign materials are located within lysosomes
Feedback Inhibition in Metabolic Pathways:
Cells also use feedback inhibition to regulate enzyme activity in metabolism. Cells have evolved to use the products of their own reactions for feedback inhibition of enzyme activity. Feedback inhibition involves the use of a reaction product to regulate its own further production. Metabolic reactions, such as anabolic and catabolic processes, must proceed according to the demands of the cell. In order to maintain chemical equilibrium and meet the needs of the cell, some metabolic products inhibit the enzymes in the chemical pathway, while some reactants activate them .
Feedback Inhibition:
Metabolic pathways are a series of reactions catalyzed by multiple enzymes. Feedback inhibition, where the end product of the pathway inhibits an upstream step, is an important regulatory mechanism in cells.
The production of both amino acids and nucleotides is controlled through feedback inhibition. ATP is the product of the catabolic metabolism of sugar (cellular respiration), but it also acts as an allosteric regulator for the same enzymes that produced it. ATP is an unstable molecule that can spontaneously dissociate into ADP; if too much ATP were present, most of it would go to waste. This feedback inhibition prevents the production of additional ATP if it is already abundant. While ATP is an inhibitor, ADP is an allosteric activator. When levels of ADP are high compared to ATP levels, ADP triggers the catabolism of sugar to produce more ATP.

1200 days ago
replied the topic Hibernate Icon is missing created by legend

One of the most common problem in Windows is the missing "Hibernate" option in Start Menu. I get many emails regularly asking the same question: How to enable the hibernate option in Windows Vista or other Windows versions?

Actually its a known issue in Windows. The hibernate option automatically disappears whenever you run "Disk Cleanup" wizard. It happens because Disk Cleanup wizard also removes important Hibernate files to free up space on your hard drive. So if you use Hibernate feature, then make sure you always deselect "Hibernattion File Cleaner" option from the list whenever you run Disk Cleanup wizard in future.

Anyway its very easy to re-enable the missing Hibernate option. If you are also not getting the option, you can bring it back by following these simple steps:

1. Click on "Start button -> All Programs -> Accessories". Right-click on "Command Prompt" and select "Run As Administrator". If you are prompted to enter password, enter the password and continue. You can also open Command Prompt in Administrator mode by typing "cmd" in Start Menu Search box and press "Ctrl+Shift+Enter".

2. Now provide any of following commands:

powercfg /hibernate on
powercfg -h on


3. Exit command prompt and Hibernate option should appear in Start Menu.

So next time when you run Disk Cleanup, make sure to uncheck the option to clear hibernate files otherwise it'll again disable the hibernate feature in Windows and you'll not get the option in Start Menu.

1201 days ago
replied the topic Favourite pet? created by naeem

CAT is my favourite pet...........

1201 days ago
replied the topic The laptop load slow created by johnksst

you and your pc both go to hell..........................

1201 days ago
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